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Urban Planning using GIS/RS Technologies


Introduction
To achieve the objectives of making metropolis cities more livable and of international standard, a co-coordinated and integrated approach among the various agencies involved in urban development and provision of services are needed including participatory process in planning and implementation at local body levels. As well as to have planned and organized disposal of population through growth centers, which will acts as counter-magnets to the cities growth. This growth may not able to withstand the existing infrastructure, traffic, road, drainage and utility networks etc.,. Advance urban planning is required for a planned development of the area for which an accurate & up-to-date GIS digital map is a must.

Unlike other major cities such as Delhi, Mumbai etc., in our country, realization of the plan through large scale acquisition and development of land, to ensure spatial pattern of development and provision of recreational, educational and other institutional facilities, was not aimed at. Public sector lead growth and development process was not envisaged, but it was of private involved growth process (regulated by public) to achieve the objectives of town planning. The land use zoning concept adopted since 1975 was the ‘Mixed Zoning Concept’ which suit better city’s social way of life considerations, and not exclusive zoning (mostly adopted in western countries and also in zone of our metro cities) which have created major problems in our Indian cities.

To solve this problem, well planned master plans GIS maps are required for proper town planning, So this article will explaining the Concept and Preparation of Scientific GIS digital base map of major cities/for entire State by GIS/RS Method using High Resolution Satellite images with a resolution of 0.6m/0.5m and updations of missing details by Total Station Survey, to generate 2D digital map data to fit for producing hard copies of maps at basic scale of 1:5,000 & 1: 2,000 and this base map data will be incorporated in a GIS system for further town planning for Infrastructure management.

Importance of Remote Sensing and GIS
Geographical Information system & Remote Sensing is a vital technology in any evolving national Infrastructure planning environment. Therefore, it’s a collection, interpretation, analysis, managing, storing and distribution of Geospatial data. It is very much important for urban planning activities & environmental improvement.

Efficient urban information system is a vital pre-requisite for planned development. The increasing demands in urban planning and management sectors call for co-ordinate application of Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) for sustainable development of Urban areas. There is an urgent need to adopt Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System approach in Infrastructure development. And monitoring process for implementing pragmatic plan of Urban development. The plan must incorporate an integrated approach of spatial modeling using Remote Sensing Data, GIS database and GPS solutions. This helps in evolving efficient and economical models for development and location of industries, education, housing, water supply, and service facility and disposal system.

The availability of high resolution data like WorldView-1 (0.5m), Worldview-2 (0.46m), Quickbird (0.6m) & Ikonos (1m) Resolution image satellites has revolutionized the process of masterplan map preparation & thematic mapping and spatial data base creation, specially, in the context of urban and regional planning. Whereas the technologies such as GIS has emerged as a powerful tool in integrating and analyzing the various thematic layers along with attribute information to create various planning scenarios for decision making . Remote Sensing (RS) data provides reliable, timely, accurate, and periodic data, while Geographic Information System (GIS) provide various methods of integration tools to create different planning scenarios for decision making. Therefore, the task force on urban and rural studies setup by the Planning Commission suggested the use of RS and GIS techniques for meeting the information and analysis needs of urban areas.

A Geographic Information System (GIS) may be defined as .a computer based information system which attempts to capture, store, manipulate, analyze and display spatial and tabular attribute data, for solving research, planning and management problems." A GIS is a special case of information systems where the database consists of observations in space as points, lines or areas Within a GIS distinct point, line and polygon layers are displayed together much like overhead transparencies on a projector to create maps A Geographic Information System (GIS) centrally stores information about the world in a collection of digital map layers. Rather than having information in many formats stored in multiple places like filing cabinets, different computer systems, large binders or static paper maps, a GIS pulls together very different pieces of information into one system. These map layers may be over-laid and linked together to create maps, integrate information, visualize and compare scenarios, solve problems, and more effectively manage resources.

System Requirement Study on GIS & Remote sensing requirement on project area:
Objective of System Requirement Study (SRS) is to study, understand, analyze and put forth the broad requirements of GIS & Remote sensing technology to achieve their functional needs through GIS system development. By blending technical expertise and client requirement, the technical needs are analyzed and a System Requirement Study (SRS) document will be submitted to Town Planning department(In Future it will be called as TPD in this document) for approval and implementation.

Upon freezing Town Planning department’s requirement as detailed in this document, the further development of GIS system such as detailed design document and Prototype development shall be taken up. However for Geodatabase Design, the live data system will be shown for Town planning authorities review & approval. GIS Geodatabase creation is focused to provide the Basic layers like Road Networks, Utility lines, Infrastructure Facilities, Water bodies etc.,. Provision is kept for both vertical and horizontal expansion for the future needs of the agencies

Project Objectives:
The main objective of this article explains the Preparation of Digital base map for urban/town Planning Area by GIS Method using High resolution Satellite images with a resolution of 0.61m/0.51m and updations of missing details by Total Station Survey, to generate 2D digital map data to fit for producing hard copies of maps at basic scale of 1: 2000 & 5000 and this base map data will be incorporated in a GIS system This Base Map will be the base for infrastructure development for Urban/Town planning areas in Cities.

Activities

  1. Preparation of Project work plan for effective planning & implementation of project.
  2. Procurement of latest high resolution ortho satellite images (Quick bird with 0.6 m resolution/Geoeye with 0.5m resolution) for the town planning area from NRSC
  3. Establishment of Ground control points for georeferencing the Satellite Images.
  4. Georefrencing the satellite images and report generation.
  5. Digital base map creation for the project area using rectified satellite images.
  6. Preparation of final base maps in the scale 1:5,000 & 2000 for hard copy prints.
  7. GIS digital map creation for project area using satellite images and preparation of geodatabase for further analysis
  8. Integration of base map & existing land use maps, approved layouts and administrative boundaries for approval and updates as per town planning department feedbacks in order to generate a multi layered GIS map

Work flow chart:


Conclusion:
GIS systems have been expanding across the Country and becoming integral parts of municipal information systems. Several reasons for this are presented below:

  • Most municipal and county information relates back to Area ID. This information can be associated with map locations which can be efficiently and easily accessed by staff or the public using graphics-based computer programs rather than traditional paper filing systems.
  • A GIS allows a community to produce custom map representations upon demand. The capabilities of which are limited only by the content of the database. These capabilities are simply not feasible with manual mapping techniques.
  • One geo-base and set of maps are shared by all department. Updates are therefore universally available to everyone. This also translates to the ability to divide up responsibilities for system support among various departments

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) at the City may be used to:

  • Respond to public inquires and provide demographic information
  • Display and analysis of place information, such as assessed values.
  • Show infrastructure layouts and conditions in a clear and understandable manner
  • Analyze patterns such as traffic patterns and crime incidents
  • Perform routine operations such as application reviews and permit approvals & Provide timely information and analysis on larger policy issues requiring action

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