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Maps
You can see three kinds of Maps which we explain it below.
  • Contour Maps

What Are Contour Maps?

Contour maps are detailed maps that show both natural and man-made features. Originally developed in the 1600s for military purposes, they are still used today for military purposes and by backpackers and hikers.

         

                  Contour map of  Al-Ramady City - Iraq


Definition

  • A contour map is also called a topographic map. Contour maps are highly detailed maps that show natural and man-made features. The main feature that differentiates contour maps from other maps is the demarcation of elevation through the use of contour lines. Contour lines indicate the elevation of features such as mountains and and depths of items such as lakes.

Map History

  • The first topographic map series to cover a single country was developed by cartographers in France in the late 1780s. While previous mapping techniques only showed governmental or private property lines, topographic maps showed both natural and man-made features.


 
  • Topographic Map

A topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both natural and man-made features. A topographic map is typically published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a combination of two line segments that connect but do not intersect; these represent elevation on a topographic map.

 

          
                     Topographic Map Baghdad - Iraq

A topographic map is a detailed and accurate graphic representation of cultural and natural features on the ground. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map; they are distinguished from smaller-scale "chorographic maps" that cover large regions, "planimetric maps" that do not show elevations, and "thematic maps" that focus on specific topics.

However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief (contours) is popularly held to define the genre, such that even small-scale maps showing relief are commonly (and erroneously, in the technical sense) called "topographic".

The study or discipline of topography, while interested in relief, is actually a much broader field of study which takes into account all natural.

 

History of Topographic Map

Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms. This is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which primarily show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements (thus the name and history of the United Kingdom's Ordnance Survey). As such, elevation information was of vital importance.

As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function which had been shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.


 
  • Thematic map

A Thematic map is a type of map or chart especially designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area. These maps "can portray physical, social, political, cultural, economic, sociological, agricultural, or any other aspects of a city, state, region ,nation , or continent

 

          

             Thematic Map of Al-Qadisiya Cities - Iraq


A thematic map is a map that focuses on a specific theme or subject area, whereas in a general map the variety of phenomena—geological, geographical, political—regularly appear together. The contrast between the both of them lies in the fact thematic maps use the base data as coastlines, boundaries and places, only as point of reference for the phenomenon being mapped. In general maps the base data as landforms, lines of transportation, settlements, and political boundaries are there for their own sake.

 

History of Thematic Map

 

An important cartographic element preceding thematic mapping was the development of accurate base maps. Improvements in accuracy proceeded at a gradual pace, and even until the mid-17th century, general maps were usually of poor quality. Still, base maps around this time were good enough to display appropriate information, allowing for the first thematic maps to come into being.An early contributor to thematic mapping was the English astronomer Edmond Halley (1656–1742).His first significant cartographic contribution was a star chart of the constellation of the Southern Hemisphere, made during his stay on St. Helena and published on 1686. In that same year he also published his first terrestrial map in an article about trade winds, and this map is called the first meteorological chart. In 1701 he published the "New and Correct Chart Shewing the Variations of the Compass", see first image, the first chart to show lines of equal magnetic variation.

 

Uses of thematic maps
 

Thematic maps serve three primary purposes.

  • First, they provide specific information about particular locations.

  • Second, they provide general information about spatial patterns.

  • Third, they can be used to compare patterns on two or more maps.

 


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